Computer Science Notes


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This is a set of notes and study materials about Computer Science.

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Anintroduction to html - how to write web pages. No special software needed. Elements, tags, attributes, headings, paragraphs, images, links, semantic elements. Also http


CSS - adding style to web pages. Colours, fonts, borders, margins, layout and more. Learn html first.


A first programming language, used in almost all web pages. Still no special software needed.

Programming Fundamentals

The theory behind the ideas in all programming languages, common to C, Java, JavaScript, Python, assembler and all the rest.


A few notes and examples about basic debugging techniques


Programming in C. The language Unix was written in, and Linux, the basis of C++ and Java and JavaScript, number 1 or 2 in Tiobe's language ratings since 2001.


An introduction to Python. The language, built-in functions and classes, writing classes, resource links, a set of examples.


An introduction to Java. In Tiobe's top 3 languages over the last 20 years. Procedural programming, using some standard classes, and writing classes.


The theory, applicable to all languages. Pseudo-code, Time and Space Complexity, Linear search, Binary search of a list, Binary tree search, Bubble sort, Merge sort, Tree traversals - in-order, Pre-order, Post-order, Infix and reverse Polish, Graph traversals – breadth-first

Data Structures

For all languages. Key-value pairs, Memory and file storage, Fields, records and files, Abstract data types, Arrays, Queues, Stacks, Graphs, Trees, Hash tables, Maps

Data Structures and Algorithms

Practical implementations in C and Java

Maths foundations

Logic, sets, functions, numbers, polynomials, logarithms, vectors.

Digital Logic

Combinational logic Truth tables The basic gates truth tables Boolean algebra notation, Logic circuit from Boolean algebra, Boolean expression from circuit Half adder Full adder, Decoder Boolean algebra identities de Morgan's Laws Karnaugh Maps Sequential logic, S R and J K flip-flop, Clocks, D type latch

Data Representations

Two-state devices, Number bases, Analog and digital, Numbers, Unsigned integers, Signed two's complement,Fixed point, Floating point, Absolute and relative errors, Range and precision, Normalisation, Underflow and overflow, Characters and strings, Digits as characters, Images and sound, Bitmapped graphics, Digital sound, Sampling rates and Nyquist's Theorem, MIDI, Data errors compression and encryption, Run-length encoding, Dictionary compression, Encryption

Device Architecture

The stored program concept, Harvard and von Neumann architectures, Storage, Processors and memory, Instruction execution, Machine code, assembler, Opcodes and operands, Common instruction types, Addressing mode, Instruction formats, Optimisations, Cache memory, Pipelining, Multiple cores,Clock speed, Word length and data bus, Instruction length, Address bus width

Communications and networks

Serial, parallel, simplex, duplex, bit rate and baud rate, bandwidth and latency, LANs and Wans and the Internet, routers hubs switches gateways routers, protocol models, TCP, IP, packets, NAT

TCP on Linux with Wireshark

A few notes about the practicalities of LANs and the Internet on Linux, and some material on socket programming.

Databases and SQL

Flat files, Relational databases, Database servers, Database systems architecture Normalisation, Users, groups and permissions, Views, Schema and data dictionary Advantages of database use, SQL, Creating the database and tables, Inserting new rows, Basic queries, Queries using WHERE, LIKE, GROUP BY, DROP, ORDER BY, UPDATE, JOIN, DELETE rows, Nested queries, Referential integrity, DDL and DML Transactions and ACID, Commit and roll-back, Concurrency and record-locking

Assembler simulation

An online simulation of assembler, native code and the fetch-execute cycle.


Assembly language programming on an x86 architecture on Linux. Detailed - 60+ pages


Bytecode compiled from Java

Data representations in Java

Binary, hex, octal, ints and doubles and chars